IN THIS SECION YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE FOLLOWING DIFFERENT AGES :
- MESOLITHIC – MIDDLE STONE AGE
- NEOLITHIC – NEW STONE AGE
- BRONZE AGE
- IRON AGE AND THE CELTS
- CHRISTIANITY AND THE EARLY MONKS AND MONASTERIES
WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW ?
- WHAT THEY WORKED AT
- WHERE THEY LIVED
- WHAT THEY ATE AND DRANK
- WHAT THEY LOOKED LIKE – CLOTHES / APPEARANCE
- THEIR TOOLS
- THEIR PASTIMES
- THEIR CUSTOMS – BURIAL
- THEIR CRAFTS – POTTERY / JEWELLERY ETC…
I ALSO NEED TO BE ABLE TO NAME WHERE HISTORIANS AND ARCHAEOLOGISTS FOUND EVIDENCE OF THESE PEOPLE .
- MESOLITHIC – MOUNT SANDEL
- NEOLITHIC – LOUGH GUR, NEWGRANGE
- BRONZE AGE – MOUNT GABRIEL
- IRON AGE / CELTS – STAIGUEFORT, TARA, INISMORE
- CHRISTIAN / MONKS – SCEILIG MHICIL, GLENDALOUGH, MONASTERBOICE
MESOLITHIC AGE – MIDDLE STONE AGE
- Hunters and Gatherers, moved from place to place.
- Wigwam shape houses made from branches folded over and animal skins.
- Wild pig, hare, duck, pigeon, fish, nuts and berries.
- Wore animal skins, sewn together by a deer horn needle.
- Stone tools – axeheads made from flint.
- Fishing and hunting.
NEOLITHIC AGE – NEW STONE AGE
- Settled farmers.
- Round or rectangular houses made from wood. Frame built of wooden posts with thin branches woven through. This was covered with mud and straw and the roof was thatched with reeds.
- Grew a lot of their own crops like wheat and barley; made into flour and then into bread. Also ate meat and drank milk. Also hunted birds and deer for meat and gathered nuts and berries .
- Wore necklaces made of stone, so probably interested in their appearance.
- Stone tools but better than Middle Stone Age. Stone ploughs, stone axes, stone knives and stone scrapers.
- Hunting, fishing and pottery making.
- Megalithic stone tombs – (a) Court cairns (b) Portal tombs / Dolmens (c) Wedge tombs (d) Passage tombs.
BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE EACH TOMB AND RECOGNISE EACH TOMB.
- Pottery – bowls with simple patterns.
- Metalsmiths, farmers.
- Round wooden houses with thatched roofs. Houses surrounded by a stone or wooden wall. Inside it were hut where the farmers kept their animals.
- Grew wheat and barley so ate bread. Ate meat from farm animals or wild animals from the forest. Drank milk from cows and goats. Cooked food in a fulacht fia.
- Gold jewellery – torcs, lunulae, ear-rings and dress fasteners.
- Bronze axes and also stone knives.
- Fishing, hunting, pottery
- Cist graves – buried their dead with their tools and or jewellery. Stone Circles – body buried at centre of circle.
- Pottery – bowls decorated with triangles and stars.
IRON AGE & THE CELTS
- Warriors (Nobles)
Skilled people – druids, carpenters, doctors, poets, smiths etc.. (Aos Dana)
- They lived in a tuath.
Homesteads – Raths/Ringforts, Caiseals, Crannogs, Hillforts, Promontory Forts.
BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE EACH ONE AND RECOGNISE EACH ONE.
- Meat, fish, milk, butter, cheese, shellfish, bread and porrige. The wheat Was made into flour in a rotary quern. They drank ale made from barley.
- Tall and goodlooking and blonde. Used lime-wash to keep their hair Blond. Used make-up from herbs and berries. Wore a long woollen cloak called a brat, which was tied at the neck with a brooch. Rich men wore a leine / tunic underneath it, tied with a crois / belt. Poor men wore trousers. Women wore a tunic to their ankles. Also wore a lot of jewellery – rings, bracelets, necklets (torcs) and brooches.
- Iron tools.
- Hunting, fishing, fighting and feasting, particularly during religious festivals – Imbolc, Bealtaine, Lughnasa and Samhain.
- Ogham Stones marked their graves.
- The Celts admired people who had special crafts – the Aos Dana. Carpenters, metalworkers and jewellers. La Tene Art.
CHRISTIANITY AND MONKS
- Monks – farmers, teachers of Latin and Irish or smiths /carpenters.
- Monasteries; firstly, made from wood and later made from stone.
These monasteries were built like a rath, surrounded by a bank of earth or a stone wall. Inside the walls, the monks lived in small wooden huts. Their churches were also made of wood or stone. Another building in the monasteries was the round tower which was tall with a pointed stone roof and the door off the ground. One special room in the monastery was the scriptorium where the monks wrote manuscripts.
- Ate very little and fasted most of the time.
- Dressed very simply.
- Pens were made from feathers and ink was made from acorns, roots and apples. They wrote on vellum or on parchment.
- Praying, baking, writing.
- Marked the graves of famous monks with High Crosses.
- Sculptors, gold/silver smiths – made chalices,crosses or shrines.