In the eighteenth century, country people still made their own clothes at home, just as they had for thousands of years. By the 1760s, people were living in the cities and they began to buy their cloth from the country dwellers. This was known as the domestic system, where country people wove cloth at home by hand for city dwellers.
The main cloth woven was linen and this became a big industry in Ireland .The process involved growing the flax, rotting the flax down until only the fibres were left, bleaching the fibres and combing the fibres to be ready for spinning. Women did the spinning and dying with spinning wheels. The men did the weaving on looms. When the cloth came out from the loom, it was a dirty grey colour. It was left outside to bleach it white. Then it was taken to the market to sell it.
After the explorations a new cloth was introduced to the industry – cotton. New machines now had to be developped to deal with this cloth.
POST – REVOLUTION
- Flying Shuttle by John Kay.
- Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves
- Water Frame by Richard Arkwright
- Factories by Richard Arkwright
- The Mule by Samuel Crompton
- The Steam Engine by James Watt
- The Power Loom by Edward Cartwright
*** For all of the above , be able to describe them in detail and say how they improved the industry.***
RESULT OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
- Industrialisation spread.
- The Iron Industry developped because iron was needed to build all the new machinery.
- The Coal Industry developped due to the growing Iron Industry.
- People moved to towns to earn a living in the new factories.
THE TRANSPORT REVOLUTION
The cheapest way to carry goods was by water. Barges carried products along the rivers.
Travel along the roads was slow and dangerous because the roads were in a bad state from mud and potholes. Heavy goods were carried in wagons which travelled at only 2/3 miles per hour.
- The Bridgewater Canal by James Brindley led to more canals being built.
- Viaducts were also built to carry the water of the canal across the valley.
- Roads were improved by Melcalf (firm foundations), Telford (roads with good drainage) and Mc Adam (rough stone chippings which led to the use of tarmacadam later)
- Turnpike roads (toll roads)
- Stage coaches, mail coaches.
- Long car by Bianconi
- Steam locomotives by Trevithick
- Locomotion by Stephenson (Liverpool-Manchester Railway)
** For each of the above, be able to give details and say how they improved transport.**\
BRITAIN & IRELAND IN THE 1840’S
For this section be able to describe the life of a person working in the factories/the mines.
Discuss tenement housing, urbanisation, overcrowding, waste disposal and health hazards.
Also be able to describe the life of a cottier/labourer. Discuss his life and the workhouse.
Finally, have a brief knowledge of the Great Famine.